By Elias Witman
A critical analysis of the role which the media shapes values and consumption patterns is essential for an understanding of what is meant when we speak of a “global middle class.” Notions of polycentrism are increasingly relevant in the global transition from conventional forms of print media to the ever-expanding role of “borderless” digital media. However, the “classic” media market seen in print, radio and television will continue to make a significant contribution to developing economies while the developed countries remain in the fast-track that is the Internet information super highway. With regards to citizenship, the mass media is known for its profound impact on shaping middle class consumption patterns, with studies pointing to advertising´s impact on the demands of youngsters and, in turn, the trend of larger families. Continue reading
By Stephen Brown and Jörn Grävingholt
The panel featured four papers. The first one, ‘Peacebuilding and “Human Securitization” of Japan’s Foreign Aid’, by Pedro Miguel Amakasu Raposo de Medeiros Carvalho and David M. Potter, addresses the case of Japan. Japan is notable for its constitutional provision that restricts the activities of its security forces, a legacy of the World War II settlement. Carvalho and Potter trace how the government’s aid agency, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Self-Defence Forces increasingly worked in tandem to bring together elements of security and development. They analyse the simultaneous rise of peacebuilding and human security approaches, starting in the mid-1990s, alongside increased concern with terrorism and other non-military security threats abroad, especially after 9/11. They combine an examination of overall aid flows with case studies of Japanese assistance to specific African and Asian countries, finding differing degrees of subjugation of development goals to security ones. Continue reading
By May Gadallah
There were five papers presented in the session:
1- Determinants of Empowerment in a Capability Based Poverty Approach: Evidence from Gambia, by O. Lessmann, K. Trommierova, and S. Klassen.
Gambia is the smallest African country with poverty rate 48.4% and 90% of the population is Muslim.
The paper analyzed the empowerment among households, heads based on data set of 2184 observations. Several questions to measure the empowerment were added the questionnaire trying to capture the perception of people (adult people) in their ability o change anything in the community and also were asked whom they rely on in these changes.
One of the interesting results was finding out that married men are more empowered than unmarried men, and polygamous married men are more empowered than monogamous married men. In addition it was found that while illiterate men rely on themselves literate men answered that they rely on the government, which raises the question whether illiterate men are aware of their basic rights that government should provide them or not. On the other hand questions were raised concerning the causality between marriage and empowerment. It was also suggested that visiting the area and presenting them the results would have been useful.
By Christine Richter
The panel invited speakers to present on five aspects of urban development strategies in Indian, South African, and Latin American cities: the main discourses in the city about its development from the perspective of the main urban coalition as well as countervailing groups, the actor networks that drive development, the kinds of spatial knowledge used in these processes, infrastructures used to produce such knowledge, as well as how actor networks have steered the outcomes of urban development strategies in the research cities. The panel was part of a presentation on the final results of Chance2Sustain, an international research project financed by the European Union. Continue reading
By Carsten Wentink
Results of the REINCORPFISH project on small-scale fisheries (SSF) were presented through three presentations with a special focus on South African and South Asian small-scale fisheries sectors, including various comparative perspectives on these two cases. Both SSF sectors are characterized by a post-conflict situation. In South Africa this is characterized by a re-allocation of the ‘right to fish’ to previously disadvantaged black and coloured fishing communities through a new SSF policy. In South Asia the papers presented are characterized by the Sri Lankan post-conflict setting. Here the Tamil small-scale fishing population was banned from fishing as they were seen as a possible threat. In the post-conflict context fishers returned to the sea while Indian trawlers largely occupied their fishing grounds within the Sri Lankan EEZ, leading to a bilateral conflict between Sri Lankan small-scale fishers and Indian industrialized trawlers. Continue reading
“Noeleen Heyzer, special adviser to the UN Secretary-General and former Executive Secretary of ESCAP, emphasized the importance of Asia. According to recent research, by 2030, 70% of the global middle class will live in Asia, which will account for 60% of global middle class consumption. In other words, the rise of the middle class is real and will continue.” The Broker reports from the EADI General Conference on the second plenary session
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“I would like to see a greater effort to include the richer groups as well within discussions on setting a target on inequality. Without including this group you miss the opportunity to do something about the main causes of inequality.” Branko Milanovic speaks to the Broker at the EADI General Conference
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By Henning Melber
This session, which was attended by some 20 participants, had its main focus on the South African case study. Roger Southall (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg) presented an in-depth historical and current analysis on The Black Middle Class and Democracy in South Africa. After a summary overview on the historical trajectories of an emerging black middle class (BMC), closely associated with the political struggles under the leadership of the African national Congress (ANC), he shifted the main attention to the currently emerging BMC, positioned between the market and the party state as the two dominant factors for upward social mobility in democratic South Africa. He asked if members of a class depicted as increasingly consumerist would consistently support progressive causes, will act as a democratic force and be willing or likely to bite the hand of the party-state that feeds them. Continue reading
By Isabel Naguib
The gap between rich and poor is often used to illustrate the unequal global distribution of wealth. However, just as richness is not just about money, poverty is neither. Resulting from the capability approach, which addresses this myopic conception of poverty, stating that poverty must not be measured only on income, a set of parameters is used to establish an index that goes beyond a mere monetary view on the topic. This Multidimensional Poverty Index, MPI, hence leads to a better understanding of poverty in its different aspects.
The EADI Working Group on Multidimensional Poverty focuses on this method of measuring poverty. In the meeting on 24 June 2014, chaired by Keetie Roelen from the Institute of Development Studies, four speakers delivered five presentations on various approaches and topics that at some point included this multi-faceted view on poverty.